Most people make a full recovery from meningitis, but it can sometimes cause serious long-term problems and can be life threatening.
It's estimated up to 1 person in every 2 or 3 who survives bacterial meningitis is left with 1 or more permanent problems.
Complications are much rarer after viral meningitis.
Some of the most common complications associated with meningitis are:
- hearing loss, which may be partial or total – people who have had meningitis will usually have a hearing test after a few weeks to check for any problems
- recurrent seizures (epilepsy)
- problems with memory and concentration
- co-ordination, movement and balance problems
- learning difficulties and behavioural problems
- vision loss, which may be partial or total
- loss of limbs – amputation is sometimes necessary to stop the infection spreading through the body and remove damaged tissue
- bone and joint problems, such as arthritis
- kidney problems
Overall, it's estimated up to 1 in every 10 cases of bacterial meningitis is fatal.
Additional treatment and long-term support may be required if you or your child experience complications of meningitis.
- cochlear implants, which are small devices that are inserted into the ears to improve hearing, may be needed in cases of severe hearing loss – read more about treatment for hearing loss
- prosthetic limbs and rehabilitation support may help if it was necessary to amputate any limbs – read more about recovering after an amputation
- counselling and psychological support may help if the trauma of having meningitis causes problems such as disturbed sleep, bedwetting, or fear of doctors and hospitals
The Meningitis Research Foundation has information on the after effects of meningitis in children.
This includes a guide to recovering from childhood meningitis and septicaemia.