There's a very effective vaccine that can stop you getting yellow fever if you're travelling to an area where the infection is found.
It's given as an injection into your upper arm.
But even if you have been vaccinated, it's important to prevent insect bites as mosquitoes can also spread other serious illnesses.
The yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people from 9 months of age who are travelling to:
- an area where yellow fever is found, including parts of sub-Saharan Africa, South America, Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean
- a country that requires you to have a certificate proving you have been vaccinated against yellow fever
You should be vaccinated at least 10 days before you travel to allow enough time for the vaccine to work.
If you or your child has had the MMR vaccine, you or they need to wait at least 4 weeks before having the yellow fever vaccine.
If it is not possible to leave a 4-week gap, the yellow fever vaccine should be given but an additional dose of MMR should be considered at a later date. Re-vaccination with the yellow fever vaccine can also be considered on an individual basis for those at on-going risk.
Some countries require a certificate showing you have been vaccinated before you're allowed entry.
This is known as an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP).
All vaccination certificates are now valid for life, including older ones with an expiry date on them. You'll be given a certificate when you're vaccinated at a yellow fever vaccination centre.
Check the country information on the TravelHealthPro website or with a yellow fever vaccination centre to see if you need a certificate for the area you're visiting.
A certificate is not needed for entry into the UK.
Keep your certificate safe and make a copy for your records.
If you lose your certificate, you may be able to get another one reissued if you have a copy showing full details of the vaccination batch number and the date you had the vaccination.
The yellow fever vaccine and vaccination certificates are only available from registered yellow fever vaccination centres.
The yellow fever vaccine is not available for free on the NHS, so you'll have to pay for it.
It typically costs around £60 to £85.
The yellow fever vaccine provides lifelong protection for most people.
A further dose of vaccine is recommended for a small number of travellers who are visiting yellow fever risk areas, including those who were previously vaccinated when they were:
- under 2 years old
- living with HIV
- had a weakened immune system
- before having a bone marrow transplant
Rarely, a further dose of vaccine may also be advised if there's a concern about the traveller's risk of yellow fever, for example, if they're working or living for some time in a high-risk area.
Contact a yellow fever vaccination centre for advice if you're not sure if you need another dose before travelling.
There are some people who cannot have the yellow fever vaccine when it's recommended.
People who cannot have the vaccine include:
- babies under 6 months old
- people with a weakened immune system, such as those with leukaemia or lymphoma
- people whose immune system is weakened by treatment, such as steroids and chemotherapy
- people who are allergic to any of the ingredients in the vaccine, including people with an egg allergy
- people who've had a severe reaction to a previous dose of yellow fever vaccine
- people with a thymus gland disorder or who've had their thymus gland removed
- people over the age of 60 who are travelling to areas where yellow fever vaccine is not generally recommended
- people who have a close relative who has had a severe reaction to the vaccine causing damage to the brain or other organs
If you need a vaccination certificate for the country you're visiting but you're not able to have the vaccine, contact a yellow fever vaccination centre.
They may provide you with an exemption letter, which may be accepted by officials in countries that usually require a vaccination certificate.
Who may be able to have the vaccine in some circumstances
If you're not sure whether you can have the yellow fever vaccine, ask a travel health specialist at the vaccination centre. They'll do a full risk assessment based on your or your child's medical history and where you're travelling to.
People who may be able to have the vaccine include:
- those aged 60 and over – only when travel to a high-risk area is unavoidable
- those who are pregnant – if travel to a high-risk area is unavoidable
- those who are breastfeeding – expert advice is needed for women who are breastfeeding babies under 9 months
- those with long-term (chronic) inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis – if on low-dose steroid therapy
- babies from 6 months to under 9 months of age – if travel is unavoidable and risk is high, expert advice is needed
- those living with HIV – only after specialist advice
Take extra care to prevent insect bites while travelling if you have not been vaccinated.
The yellow fever vaccine can cause some side effects, but the risk of not being vaccinated usually outweighs the risk of having side effects.
After having the vaccine, up to 1 in every 3 people gets:
- a headache
- muscle pain
- a raised temperature
- soreness at the injection site
These side effects usually pass within 2 weeks.
Rarely, a person can get more serious side effects, including an allergic reaction to one of the ingredients in the vaccine.
A very rare side effect of the vaccine can cause problems with the brain or other organs, which can be fatal. This is more likely to affect:
- people aged 60 or older
- people with weakened immune systems
- anyone who's had their thymus gland removed or has a thymus gland disorder
Get medical advice if you feel very unwell within a few days or weeks of having the yellow fever vaccine.