Spondylolisthesis is where one of the bones in your spine, known as a vertebra, slips out of position.
It's most common in the lower back, but it can also happen in the mid to upper back or at the top of the spine at the back of your neck.
Spondylolisthesis is not the same as a slipped disc. A slipped disc is when a disc (the tissue between the bones in your spine) moves out of place.
Many people may not realise they have spondylolisthesis because it does not always cause symptoms.
Symptoms can include:
The severity of these symptoms can vary from person to person.
Spondylolisthesis can be caused by:
See your GP if:
Your GP may examine your back, although there are not usually any visible signs of spondylolisthesis.
Your GP may ask you to do a straight leg raise test, where you lie on your back while your GP holds your foot and lifts your leg up, keeping your knee straight. This is often painful if you have spondylolisthesis.
Spondylolisthesis can easily be confirmed by taking an X-ray of your spine from the side while you're standing.
This will show whether a bone in your spine has slipped out of position or if you have a fracture.
These more detailed scans will be able to help work out whether you have a compressed nerve in your back.
The way spondylolisthesis is treated depends on your symptoms and how severe they are.
In most cases, non-surgical treatments will be recommended first.
Initial treatments for spondylolisthesis may include:
These treatments only provide temporary relief, but your symptoms may disappear completely with time.
Back braces used to be recommended for some people with spondylolisthesis, but they're no longer used because there are concerns that they may weaken your spine without improving symptoms.
Surgery may be recommended if non-surgical treatments do not work and your symptoms are severe, persistent or suggest you have a compressed nerve in your spine.
The type of operation you need depends on the type of spondylolisthesis you have.
The surgery usually involves fusing the slipped bone in your spine to the bones next to them using metal screws and rods, and a piece of your own bone taken from an area nearby. The screws and rods are usually left in place permanently.
In some cases, the disc between the bones in your spine may also be removed. It'll be replaced by a small "cage" containing a bone graft to hold the bones in your spine apart.
The operation is performed under general anaesthetic, which means you will not be awake.
Surgery often relieves many of the symptoms of spondylolisthesis, particularly pain and numbness in the legs.
But it's a major operation that involves up to a week in hospital and a recovery period lasting months, where you have to limit your activities.
Spinal surgery for spondylolisthesis also carries a risk of potentially serious complications.
Because of the possibility of complications, make sure you discuss the operation in detail with your doctor or surgeon before deciding to have surgery.
Read more about lumbar decompression surgery, a type of spinal surgery used to treat compressed nerves in the lower (lumbar) spine.