The symptoms of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) typically start during the late teens or early twenties, but they may develop at any age.
Most of the problems are caused by non-cancerous (benign) tumours growing in various part of the body.
Most people with NF2 develop non-cancerous tumours along the nerves used by the brain to help with hearing and balance. The tumours are known as vestibular schwannomas and can cause problems such as:
The tumours tend to only cause problems in one ear at first, but both ears are often affected eventually.
Less common symptoms include vertigo – when it feels like you or everything around you is spinning – nausea and vomiting.
It's likely the tumours will grow larger over time, eventually causing additional symptoms such as:
About 2 in 3 people with NF2 develop cloudy patches in the lens of the eye (cataracts).
Cataracts can make a person's vision blurred or misty. However, they're usually mild in NF2 and rarely cause serious vision problems.
Cataracts are normally associated with old age, but they can develop in children and young adults with NF2. Read more about childhood cataracts.
Just over half of people with NF2 develop benign tumours on or underneath the surface of their skin. These are called schwannomas.
They often take the form of skin plaques: small, coloured, raised patches of skin, usually less than 2cm across.
Tumours that develop under the skin can grow to around the size of a golf ball and can be painful if they develop along a section of nerves.
Some people with NF2 may also develop a small number of coffee-coloured patches on their skin, called café au lait spots. But having lots of these spots is usually a sign of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
Many people with NF2 will develop a condition called peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
Around 1 in 2 people with NF2 develop one or more benign tumours inside their brain. These are called meningiomas.
Meningiomas may cause no noticeable problems. However, they can sometimes lead to an increase in pressure in and around the brain, causing symptoms such as:
The tumours can also disrupt certain brain functions. Depending on where they are, they may cause:
Around 1 in 2 people with NF2 develop one or more benign tumours inside their spinal cord. These are called ependymomas.
Of those who develop ependymomas, about half won't have any noticeable symptoms. But those who do may experience: