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Breath-holding in babies and children

Breath-holding is when a baby or child stops breathing for up to 1 minute and may faint. It can happen when a child is frightened, upset, angry, or has a sudden shock or pain. It's usually harmless but can be scary for parents, particularly when it happens for the first time.

During breath-holding, your child may:

  • cry and then be silent while holding their breath
  • open their mouth as if going to cry but make no sound
  • turn blue or grey
  • be floppy or stiff, or their body may jerk
  • faint for 1 or 2 minutes

Your child may be sleepy or confused for a while afterwards.

Breath-holding is usually harmless

Although breath-holding can be scary for parents, it's usually harmless and your child should grow out of it by the age of 4 or 5.

Breath-holding episodes:

  • usually last for less than 1 minute (if the child faints, they'll usually regain consciousness within 1 or 2 minutes)
  • are not epileptic seizures

Your child is not doing it on purpose and cannot control what happens when they have a breath-holding episode.

What to do when a child has a breath-holding episode


  • stay calm – it should pass in less than 1 minute

  • lie the child on their side – do not pick them up

  • stay with them until the episode ends

  • make sure they cannot hit their head, arms or legs on anything

  • reassure them and ensure they get plenty of rest afterwards


  • do not shake your child or splash them with water

  • do not put anything in their mouth (including your fingers)

  • do not give them mouth-to-mouth or CPR

  • do not tell them off (they're not doing it deliberately)

There's no specific treatment for breath-holding. It should eventually stop by the time your child is 4 or 5 years old.

Medicines are rarely used to treat breath-holding.

Breath-holding is sometimes related to iron deficiency anaemia.

Your child's blood iron levels may be checked. They may need iron supplements if their iron levels are low.

Breath-holding is usually triggered by a sudden shock or pain, or strong emotions like fear, upset or anger.

There are 2 types of breath-holding:

Blue breath-holding spells

This is the most common type of breath-holding and happens when a child's breathing pattern changes.

Reflex anoxic seizures

This type of breath-holding happens when a child's heart rate slows down.


Find out more