Tourette's syndrome is a condition that causes a person to make involuntary sounds and movements called tics.
It usually starts during childhood, but the tics and other symptoms usually improve after several years and sometimes go away completely.
There's no cure for Tourette's syndrome, but treatment can help manage symptoms.
Tics are the main symptom of Tourette's syndrome. They usually appear in childhood between the age of 5 and 9.
People with Tourette's syndrome might have both physical and vocal tics.
Examples of physical tics:
Examples of vocal tics:
Swearing is rare and affects only about 1 in 10 people with Tourette's syndrome.
Tics aren't usually harmful to a person's overall health, but physical tics, such as jerking of the head, can be painful.
Tics can be worse on some days than others.
They may be worse during periods of:
People with Tourette's syndrome can have behavioural problems, such as:
Children with Tourette's syndrome may be at risk of bullying because their tics might single them out.
Most people with Tourette's syndrome experience a strong urge before a tic, which has been compared to the feeling you get before needing to itch or sneeze.
These feelings are known as premonitory sensations. Premonitory sensations are only relieved after the tic has been carried out.
Examples of premonitory sensations include:
Some people can control their tics for a short while in certain social situations, like in a classroom. It requires concentration, but gets easier with practise.
Controlling tics can be tiring. A person may have a sudden release of tics after a day trying to control them, like after returning home from school.
Tics may be less noticeable during activities involving a high level of concentration, such as reading an interesting book or playing sports.
You should contact your GP if you or your child start having tics.
Many children have tics for several months before growing out of them, so a tic doesn't necessarily mean your child has Tourette's syndrome.
There's no single test for Tourette's syndrome. Tests and scans, such as an MRI, may be used to rule out other conditions.
You can be diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome if you've had several tics for at least a year.
Getting a firm diagnosis can help you and others understand your problems better, and help you access the right kind of treatment and support.
To get a diagnosis, your GP may refer you to different specialists, such as a neurologist (a brain and nervous system specialist).
There's no cure for Tourette's syndrome and most children with tics don't need treatment for them.
In some cases, treatment may be recommended to help you control your tics.
Treatment, usually available on the NHS, can involve:
Behavioural therapy is usually provided by a psychologist or a specially trained therapist.
Two types of behavioural therapy have been shown to reduce tics.
This approach involves working out the feelings that trigger tics. The next stage is to find an alternative, less noticeable way of relieving the urge to tic.
This method trains you to better control your urge to tic. Techniques are used to recreate the urge to tic to train you to tolerate the feeling, without doing the tic, until the urge passes.
Some people's tics are helped with medicines, but this is usually only recommended if the tics are more severe or affecting daily activities.
Medicines for Tourette's syndrome can have side effects and they won't work for everyone.
The cause of Tourette's syndrome is unknown. It's thought to be linked to a part of the brain that helps regulate body movements.
For unknown reasons, boys are more likely to be affected by Tourette's syndrome than girls.
For more information on treatment and support, contact the charity Tourettes Action.