Undescended testicles will usually move down into the scrotum naturally by the time your child is 3 to 6 months old.
If the testicles don't descend by 6 months, it's very unlikely they will without treatment.
In this case, a surgical procedure called an orchidopexy will be recommended to reposition one or both testicles.
The operation should ideally be carried out before your child's 12 months old.
In most cases, if the testicle can be felt in the groin, a simple orchidopexy can be performed.
This involves first making a cut (incision) in the groin to locate the undescended testicle.
The testicle is then moved downwards and repositioned in the scrotum through a second incision.
If the testicle is thought to be higher in the tummy (abdomen), a type of keyhole surgery known as a laparoscopy is sometimes carried out to locate it before it's repositioned.
This involves passing a laparoscope (a small tube containing a light source and a camera) through a small incision in your child's abdomen.
A testicle found inside the abdomen can occasionally be brought down to the scrotum in a single operation, but sometimes this has to be done in 2 separate stages.
In cases where the testicle is in the abdomen (impalpable), there's a small possibility that there's no testicle at all on that side.
This is either because it didn't develop properly or it twisted and withered away early in life. This would be confirmed during the laparoscopy.
When the procedure is complete, the incisions are usually closed with dissolvable stitches that don't need to be removed.
Orchidopexies and laparoscopies are performed under a general anaesthetic, which means your child will be asleep during the procedure and won't feel any pain while it's carried out.
The operation normally takes about 1 hour and is usually performed as day surgery, which means your child will be able to return home on the same day.
Your child may feel a bit unwell for the first 24 hours after surgery as a result of the anaesthetic. This is nothing to worry about.
The following advice should help to speed up your child's recovery time and reduce their risk of developing any complications:
- They'll need to have regular pain relief for a few days after the operation. Activities such as playing games, watching television and reading together may help to keep his mind off the pain.
- Encourage your child to drink plenty of fluids.
- Their groin area may feel sore for a while after the operation. Wearing loose-fitting clothing will help, although wearing a nappy is fine and can help protect the area.
- Follow your surgeon's advice about washing and bathing.
- Your child should not ride a bicycle or use sit-on toys for a few weeks after the operation. This is to prevent the testicles moving back up into the abdomen. Ask your surgeon for their advice about this.
- Your child should rest for a few days at home before returning to school or nursery.
Be alert for any signs that the site of the surgery has become infected.
- your child being in a lot of pain and the prescribed pain relief not working
- your child having a high temperature (fever) of 38C or above
- the site of the surgery being red, inflamed or feeling hotter than the surrounding area
- a discharge of fluid or pus from the site of the surgery
If you notice any of these signs and symptoms, contact your GP as soon as possible for advice.
As a general rule, the closer the testicle is to the scrotum originally, the more likely it is that surgery will be successful.
The success rate for treating palpable testicles located near the scrotum is estimated to be higher than 90%.
The operation is slightly less successful in treating impalpable testicles located in the abdomen.
As with any type of surgery, an orchidopexy carries the risk of complications, some of which may need to be treated with further surgery.
Possible side effects and complications of an orchidopexy include:
- bleeding, swelling or bruising where the incisions were made
- the wound becoming infected
- the testicle moving up into the groin again
- the blood supply not being able to sustain the testicle in its new position, which causes it to wither away (testicular atrophy)
- damage to the tube connecting the testicle to the urethra (vas deferens), which can make it difficult for semen to pass through
In general, complication rates are low. The main risk is loss (atrophy) of the testicle.
The chances of this increase the further the testicle has to be moved to get to the scrotum.