A slipped disc is when a soft cushion of tissue between the bones in your spine pushes out. It's painful if it presses on nerves. It usually gets better slowly with rest, gentle exercise and painkillers.
A slipped disc (also called a prolapsed or herniated disc) can cause:
- lower back pain
- numbness or tingling in your shoulders, back, arms, hands, legs or feet
- neck pain
- problems bending or straightening your back
- muscle weakness
- pain in the buttocks, hips or legs if the disc is pressing on the sciatic nerve (sciatica)
Not all slipped discs cause symptoms. Many people will never know they have slipped a disc.
Sometimes the pain may be a result of an injury such as a sprain or strain, but often there's no obvious reason.
Back pain is rarely caused by anything serious.
If the pain is very bad, you may need to rest at first. But start gentle exercise as soon as you can – it'll help you get better faster.
The type of exercise is not important, just gradually increase your activity level.
Take them regularly (up to the recommended daily amount) rather than just when the pain is particularly bad. This will help you to keep moving.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen are not suitable for everyone. Speak to a pharmacist if you're not sure.
Stronger painkillers containing codeine may help for pain that's just started.
But these types of painkillers can cause addiction and should only be used for a few days.
Your GP will usually be able to tell if you have a slipped disc from your symptoms.
You may also have a physical examination. Your GP might ask you to raise your arms or do simple leg exercises to find out where the slipped disc is.
A GP might prescribe a stronger painkiller, a steroid injection or a muscle relaxant to use in the short term.
If your symptoms do not get better, a GP might recommend further tests, like an MRI scan.
They might also refer you to a physiotherapist. Physiotherapy from the NHS might not be available everywhere and waiting times can be long. You can also get it privately.
Surgery is not usually needed, but a GP might refer to you a specialist to discuss surgery if your symptoms:
- have not improved using other treatments
- include worsening muscle weakness, or numbness
Alternative treatments for a slipped disc
There's some evidence that manual therapies, like osteopathy, can help ease lower back pain.
You'll usually have to pay for this treatment privately.
They can happen because of:
- exercising too hard
- lifting heavy objects the wrong way
- vibration from driving or operating machinery
- being inactive or overweight
keep active – take regular exercise
use a safe technique when lifting heavy objects
do not smoke – nicotine weakens the disc tissue