Treatment for glomerulonephritis depends on the cause of your condition and your symptoms.
In mild cases, treatment is not always necessary. If treatment is needed, it's usually carried out by a kidney specialist.
In mild cases, a GP or dietitian will give you relevant advice about diet. You may be advised to reduce your intake of:
- foods that contain a high amount of salt
- foods or drinks that contain a high amount of potassium
This should help control your blood pressure and ensure the amount of fluid in your body is regulated.
You should have a regular review to ensure your blood contains the right levels of potassium, sodium chloride and other salts.
Smoking may make kidney disease caused by glomerulonephritis worse.
Severe cases of glomerulonephritis, caused by problems with the immune system, are sometimes treated with types of medicine known as immunosuppressants. These medicines suppress your immune system.
Suppressing your immune system can be effective, but it also increases your risk of infections and can cause other side effects.
If you're offered treatment with immunosuppressant medicines, they'll be adjusted to the level needed to treat your condition and will be carefully monitored.
You may be put on a course of medicines containing steroids such as prednisolone.
Steroids are used to reduce swelling and suppress your immune system.
Once your kidneys have started to recover, your dose of steroids will usually be lowered. You may continue to take a small dose, or this treatment may be stopped altogether.
Cyclophosphamide is an immunosuppressant used in very high doses to treat some cancers. It's also an established treatment, in much lower doses, for glomerulonephritis.
Other medicines to help control your immune system include:
- mycophenolate mofetil
If your condition is thought to be linked to a viral infection, it may be treated with antiviral medication.
Individual symptoms can sometimes be treated. For example, swelling caused by a build-up of fluid may be treated with a type of medicine called a diuretic.
Treating high blood pressure
Glomerulonephritis often leads to high blood pressure, which can cause further kidney damage and other health problems.
Your blood pressure will be carefully monitored by the healthcare professionals treating you.
You may need to take medicines that lower blood pressure and help reduce the amount of protein that leaks into your urine, such as:
- angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
- angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB)
Often, people who have high blood pressure and kidney disease need to take several medicines to control their blood pressure.
These medicines are commonly prescribed, even if your blood pressure is not particularly high, as they can help protect the kidneys.
Treating high cholesterol
High cholesterol levels are common in people with glomerulonephritis.
A doctor may recommend medicine to reduce cholesterol and help protect you against complications such as heart and vascular disease. Statins are the most frequently used medicine.
Plasma is a fluid that is part of the blood. It contains proteins that can make your kidneys inflamed.
Plasma exchange involves removing some of the plasma from your blood.
During the procedure, you're connected to a machine that gradually removes some of your blood.
The plasma is separated from the blood cells and removed. A plasma substitute is then added to the blood before it's put back into your body.
Plasma exchange may be used in certain circumstances if your condition is severe.
Treating chronic kidney disease or kidney failure
In severe cases that cannot be improved with other treatments, you may require:
- kidney dialysis – a treatment that takes over part of the kidney's job and removes waste products from your body
- a kidney transplant – where a healthy kidney from a donor is surgically implanted to replace your own kidney
People with glomerulonephritis can be more prone to infections, particularly if:
- you have nephrotic syndrome
- you develop chronic kidney disease