Atherosclerosis is a potentially serious condition where arteries become clogged with fatty substances called plaques, or atheroma.
These plaques cause the arteries to harden and narrow, restricting the blood flow and oxygen supply to vital organs, and increasing the risk of blood clots that could potentially block the flow of blood to the heart or brain.
Atherosclerosis does not tend to have any symptoms at first and many people may be unaware they have it, but it can eventually cause life-threatening problems, such as heart attacks and strokes, if it gets worse.
But the condition is largely preventable with a healthy lifestyle, and treatment can help reduce the risk of serious problems happening.
If left to get worse, atherosclerosis can potentially lead to a number of serious conditions known as cardiovascular disease (CVD). There will not usually be any symptoms until CVD develops.
Types of CVD include:
- coronary heart disease – the main arteries that supply your heart (the coronary arteries) become clogged with plaques
- angina – short periods of tight, dull or heavy chest pain caused by coronary heart disease, which may precede a heart attack
- heart attacks – where the blood supply to your heart is blocked, causing sudden crushing or indigestion-like chest pain that can radiate to nearby areas, as well as shortness of breath and dizziness
- strokes – where the blood supply to your brain is interrupted, causing the face to droop to 1 side, weakness on 1 side of the body, and slurred speech
- transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) – where there are temporary symptoms of a stroke
- peripheral arterial disease – where the blood supply to your legs is blocked, causing leg pain when walking
Exactly why and how arteries become clogged is unclear.
It can happen to anyone, although the following things can increase your risk:
- increasing age
- an unhealthy, high-fat diet
- lack of exercise
- being overweight or obese
- regularly drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
- other conditions, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes
- a family history of atherosclerosis and CVD
- being of south Asian, African or African-Caribbean descent
You cannot do anything about some of these factors, but by tackling things like an unhealthy diet and a lack of exercise you can help reduce your risk of atherosclerosis and CVD.
Speak to your GP if you're worried you may be at a high risk of atherosclerosis.
If you're between the ages of 40 and 74, you should have an NHS Health Check every 5 years, which will include tests to find out if you're at risk of atherosclerosis and CVD.
Your GP or practice nurse can work out your level of risk by taking into account factors such as:
- your age, gender and ethnic group
- your weight and height
- if you smoke or have previously smoked
- if you have a family history of CVD
- your blood pressure and cholesterol levels
- if you have certain long-term conditions
Depending on your result, you may be advised to make lifestyle changes, consider taking medication or have further tests to check for atherosclerosis and CVD.
Making healthy lifestyle changes can reduce your risk of developing atherosclerosis and may help stop it getting worse.
The main ways you can reduce your risk are:
- stop smoking – you can call the NHS Smokefree helpline for advice on 0300 123 1044 or ask your GP about stop smoking treatments; read more advice about stopping smoking
- have a healthy diet – avoid foods that are high in saturated fats, salt or sugar, and aim to eat 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day; read more healthy diet advice
- exercise regularly – aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity such as cycling or fast walking every week, and strength exercises on at least 2 days a week
- maintain a healthy weight – aim for a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.9; use the BMI healthy weight calculator to work out your BMI and read advice about losing weight
- moderate your alcohol consumption – men and women are advised not to regularly drink more than 14 alcohol units a week; get tips on cutting down on alcohol
There are not currently any treatments that can reverse atherosclerosis, but the healthy lifestyle changes suggested above may help stop it getting worse.
Sometimes additional treatment to reduce the risk of problems like heart attacks and strokes may also be recommended, such as:
- statins for high cholesterol – read more about treating high cholesterol
- medicines for high blood pressure – read more about treating high blood pressure
- medicines to reduce the risk of blood clots – such as low-dose aspirin or clopidogrel
- dietary changes and medication for diabetes – read more about type 1 diabetes and treating type 2 diabetes
- a procedure to widen or bypass an affected artery – such as a coronary angioplasty, a coronary artery bypass graft or a carotid endarterectomy