Treatment for thyroid cancer depends on the type of thyroid cancer you have and how far it has spread.
The main treatments are:
You'll also need continuing care after treatment to check for and prevent any further problems.
You'll be cared for throughout your treatment by a team of healthcare professionals. Your team will recommend what they feel is the best treatment for you.
This will depend on the type of thyroid cancer you have. For example:
You may want to write a list of questions to ask your healthcare team before you go to an appointment to discuss your treatment options.
Surgery is the first treatment for most types of thyroid cancer. It may involve removing:
The operation is done under a general anaesthetic (where you're asleep). Most people are well enough to leave hospital after a few days.
You'll need to rest at home for a few weeks after surgery, and avoid any activities that could put a strain on your neck, such as heavy lifting. You'll have a small scar on your neck, but this should become less noticeable over time.
It's a good idea to talk to your surgeon about the exact operation they recommend and find out what it involves.
A course of radioactive iodine treatment is often recommended after surgery.
This will help destroy any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of the cancer coming back.
To make the treatment more effective, you'll be advised to cut down on iodine in your diet for 1 to 2 weeks before the treatment.
It's recommended that you:
Tell your care team if you think you could be pregnant, as the treatment is not safe during pregnancy.
Women should avoid getting pregnant for at least 6 months after treatment, and men should avoid fathering a child for at least 4 months.
If you're breastfeeding, it's recommended that you stop for a number of weeks before treatment starts. Your doctor will be able to give you more advice.
Radioactive iodine treatment involves swallowing radioactive iodine in either liquid or capsule form. The iodine travels through your blood and kills cancerous cells.
You'll need to stay in hospital for a few days afterwards because the iodine will make your body slightly radioactive. As a precaution, you'll need to stay in a single room and will not be able to have visitors at first.
You'll be able to have visitors and go home once the radiation levels in your body have come down. Your care team will advise you whether you need to take any precautions after going home.
Side effects of radioactive iodine treatment are uncommon, but can include:
The treatment does not affect fertility in women. Fertility can be reduced in men after treatment, but it should improve over time.
Newer medicines known as targeted therapies are being used more widely to treat several types of thyroid cancer.
These specifically target cancer cells, rather than harming healthy cells at the same time, as chemotherapy does.
These may be recommended if thyroid cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic thyroid cancer) and has not responded to radioactive iodine treatment.
The 3 main drugs used as targeted therapies on the NHS for treating thyroid cancer are:
If radioactive iodine treatment is not suitable or is ineffective, external radiotherapy may be used after surgery to reduce the risk of thyroid cancer coming back.
It can also be used to control symptoms of advanced or anaplastic thyroid carcinomas if they cannot be fully removed by surgery.
External radiotherapy usually involves treatment once a day from Monday to Friday, with a break at weekends, for 4 to 6 weeks.
Side effects of radiotherapy can include:
These side effects should pass within a few weeks of treatment finishing.
Find out more about the side effects of radiotherapy.
Chemotherapy is rarely used to treat thyroid cancer, but it's sometimes used to treat anaplastic thyroid carcinomas that have spread to other parts of the body.
It involves taking powerful medicines that kill cancerous cells. It does not cure thyroid cancer, but it may help to control the symptoms.
Find out more about chemotherapy.
After your treatment has finished you may need to continue taking medicine to reduce the risk of further problems.
You'll also be advised to have regular check-ups to look for signs of the cancer coming back.
If some, or all, of your thyroid gland is removed, it will no longer produce thyroid hormones.
This means you'll need to take replacement hormone tablets for the rest of your life to prevent symptoms of an underactive thyroid, such as fatigue, weight gain and dry skin.
Occasionally, the parathyroid glands can be affected during surgery. These glands are located close to the thyroid gland and help regulate the levels of calcium in your blood.
If your parathyroid glands are affected, your calcium levels may temporarily decrease. If this happens, you might need to take calcium supplements until the glands start to function normally again.
Thyroid cancer can come back after treatment, so you'll be asked to attend regular check-ups to look for signs of this.
You may need tests every few months to begin with, but they'll be needed less frequently over time.
Tests you may have include:
Treatment will usually need to be repeated if your cancer does come back.