Munchausen's syndrome is a psychological disorder where someone pretends to be ill or deliberately produces symptoms of illness in themselves.
Their main intention is to assume the "sick role" so that people care for them and they are the centre of attention.
Any practical benefit in pretending to be sick – for example, claiming incapacity benefit – is not the reason for their behaviour.
Munchausen's syndrome is named after a German aristocrat, Baron Munchausen, who became famous for telling wild, unbelievable tales about his exploits.
People with Munchausen's syndrome can behave in a number of different ways, including:
Some people with Munchausen's syndrome may spend years travelling from hospital to hospital faking a wide range of illnesses. When it's discovered they're lying, they may suddenly leave hospital and move to another area.
People with Munchausen's syndrome can be very manipulative and, in the most serious cases, may undergo painful and sometimes life-threatening surgery, even though they know it's unnecessary.
Munchausen's syndrome is complex and poorly understood. Many people refuse psychiatric treatment or psychological profiling, and it's unclear why people with the syndrome behave the way they do.
Several factors have been identified as possible causes of Munchausen's syndrome. These include:
Munchausen's syndrome may be caused by parental neglect and abandonment, or other childhood trauma.
As a result of this trauma, a person may have unresolved issues with their parents that cause them to fake illness. They may do this because they:
There's also some evidence to suggest people who have had extensive medical procedures, or received prolonged medical attention during childhood or their teenage years, are more likely to develop Munchausen's syndrome when they're older.
This may be because they associate their childhood memories with a sense of being cared for. As they get older, they try to obtain the same feelings of reassurance by pretending to be ill.
Different personality disorders thought to be linked with Munchausen's syndrome include:
It could be that the person has an unstable sense of their own identity and also has difficulty forming meaningful relationships with others.
Playing the "sick role" allows them to adopt an identity that brings support and acceptance from others with it. Admission to hospital also gives the person a clearly defined place in a social network.
Diagnosing Munchausen's syndrome can be challenging for medical professionals.
People with the syndrome are often very convincing and skilled at manipulating and exploiting doctors.
If a healthcare professional suspects a person may have Munchausen's syndrome, they'll look at the person's health records to check for inconsistencies between their claimed and actual medical history.
Healthcare professionals can also run tests to check for evidence of self-inflicted illness or tampering with clinical tests. For example, the person's blood can be checked for traces of medicine they should not be taking but which could explain their symptoms.
Doctors will also want to rule out other possible motivations for their behaviour, such as faking illness for financial gain or because they want access to strong painkillers.
Munchausen's syndrome can usually be diagnosed if:
Treating Munchausen's syndrome can be difficult because most people with it refuse to admit they have a problem and refuse to co-operate with treatment plans.
Some experts recommend that healthcare professionals should adopt a gentle non-confrontational approach, suggesting the person may benefit from a referral to a psychiatrist.
Others argue that a person with Munchausen's syndrome should be confronted directly and asked why they've lied and whether they have stress and anxiety.
People who have Munchausen's are genuinely mentally ill, but will often only admit to having a physical illness.
If a person admits to their behaviour, they can be referred to a psychiatrist for further treatment. If they do not admit to lying, most experts agree the doctor in charge of their care should minimise medical contact with them.
This is because the doctor-patient relationship is based on trust and if there's evidence the patient can no longer be trusted, the doctor is unable to continue treating them.
It may be possible to help control the symptoms of Munchausen's syndrome if the person admits they have a problem and co-operates with treatment.
There's no standard treatment for Munchausen's syndrome, but a combination of psychoanalysis and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has shown some success controlling symptoms.
Psychoanalysis is a type of psychotherapy that attempts to uncover and resolve unconscious beliefs and motivations.
CBT helps a person identify unhelpful and unrealistic beliefs and behavioural patterns. A specially trained therapist teaches the person ways of replacing unrealistic beliefs with more realistic and balanced ones.
People with Munchausen's syndrome still in close contact with their family may also benefit from having family therapy.
The person with the syndrome and their close family members discuss how it's affected the family and the positive changes that can be made.
It can also teach family members how to avoid reinforcing the person's abnormal behaviour. For example, this could involve recognising when the person is playing the "sick role" and avoiding showing them concern or offering support.
There appear to be 2 separate groups of people affected by Munchausen's syndrome. They are:
It's unclear why these 2 groups tend to be affected by Munchausen's syndrome.
Some experts believe Munchausen's syndrome is underdiagnosed because many people succeed in deceiving medical staff. It's also possible cases may be overdiagnosed as the same person could use different identities.
Fabricated or induced illness, also known as Munchausen's by proxy, is a type of Munchausen's syndrome.
This is where a person fakes or induces illness in a person under their care. Most cases involve a mother and her child.