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Disorders of consciousness can occur if the parts of the brain responsible for consciousness are injured or damaged.

The main causes can generally be divided into:

Common examples of these types of brain damage are outlined below.

Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury occurs when an object or outside force causes severe trauma to the brain.

This is most often caused by:

Find out more about severe head injury

Non-traumatic brain injury

Non-traumatic brain damage is usually caused by a health condition, such as:

Specific causes of non-traumatic brain injury include:

Progressive brain damage

In some cases, brain damage can gradually occur over time.

Examples of conditions that cause progressive brain damage include: