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Causes

Nearly all cervical cancers are caused by an infection with certain high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV).

You can get HPV from:

  • any skin-to-skin contact of the genital area
  • vaginal, anal or oral sex
  • sharing sex toys

Who is more likely to get cervical cancer

Anyone with a cervix can get cervical cancer. This includes trans and non-binary people with a cervix.

You might also be more likely to get cervical cancer if:

  • you're under 45 – cervical cancer is more common in younger people
  • you have a weakened immune system, like if you have HIV or AIDS
  • you have given birth to multiple children or had children at an early age (under 17 years old)
  • your mother took the hormonal medicine diethylstilbestrol (DES) while pregnant with you – your GP can discuss these risks with you
  • you've had vaginal, vulval, kidney or bladder cancer in the past

You cannot always prevent cervical cancer. But there are things you can do to lower your chances of getting cervical cancer.

Cervical screening and HPV vaccination are the best ways to protect yourself from cervical cancer.

  • All women and people with a cervix between the ages of 25 and 64 are invited for regular cervical screening. It helps find and treat any changes in the cells of the cervix before they can turn into cancer.
  • All children aged 12 to 13 are offered the HPV vaccine. It helps protect against all cancers caused by HPV, as well as genital warts.

You can also lower your chance of getting cervical cancer by:

  • using condoms, which lower your chance of getting HPV – but they do not cover all the skin around your genitals so you're not fully protected
  • quitting smoking – smoking can weaken your immune system and the chemicals in cigarettes can also cause cervical cancer
  • eating a balanced diet to help support your immune system
Information:

It's important to get any symptoms of cervical cancer checked by a GP.

Anyone can get cervical cancer, even if you've recently had a normal cervical screening result.