Frontotemporal dementia is an uncommon type of dementia that causes problems with behaviour and language.
Dementia is the name for problems with mental abilities caused by gradual changes and damage in the brain.
Frontotemporal dementia affects the front and sides of the brain (the frontal and temporal lobes).
Dementia mostly affects people over 65, but frontotemporal dementia tends to start at a younger age. Most cases are diagnosed in people aged 45-65, although it can also affect younger or older people.
Like other types of dementia, frontotemporal dementia tends to develop slowly and get gradually worse over several years.
Signs of frontotemporal dementia can include:
There may also be physical problems, such as slow or stiff movements, loss of bladder or bowel control (usually not until later on), muscle weakness or difficulty swallowing.
These problems can make daily activities increasingly difficult, and the person may eventually be unable to look after themselves.
Read more about the symptoms of frontotemporal dementia.
See a GP if you think you have early symptoms of dementia. If you're worried about someone else, encourage them to make an appointment with a GP and perhaps suggest you go with them.
The GP can do some simple checks to try to find the cause of your symptoms, and they can refer you to a memory clinic or another specialist for further tests if needed.
Read more about getting a dementia diagnosis.
There's no single test for frontotemporal dementia.
The following may be needed to make a diagnosis:
Read more about the tests used to diagnose dementia.
There's currently no cure for frontotemporal dementia or any treatment that will slow it down.
But there are treatments that can help control some of the symptoms, possibly for several years.
Read more about how frontotemporal dementia is treated.
How quickly frontotemporal dementia gets worse varies from person to person and is very difficult to predict.
People with the condition can become socially isolated as the illness progresses. They may not want to spend time in the company of others, or may behave in rude or insulting ways.
The average survival time after symptoms start is around 8 to 10 years. But this is highly variable and some people live much longer than this.
If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with dementia, remember you're not alone. The NHS and social services, as well as voluntary organisations and specialist support groups, can provide advice and support for you and your family.
Frontotemporal dementia is caused by clumps of abnormal protein forming inside brain cells. These are thought to damage the cells and stop them working properly.
The proteins mainly build up in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain at the front and sides. These are important for controlling language, behaviour, and the ability to plan and organise.
It's not fully understood why this happens, but there's often a genetic link. Around 1 in 8 people who get frontotemporal dementia will have relatives who were also affected by the condition.
If you have a family history of frontotemporal dementia, you may want to consider talking to your doctor about being referred to a geneticist and possibly having a genetic test to see if you're at risk.
There's a lot of research being done to try to improve understanding of the causes of frontotemporal dementia so treatments can be discovered.
If you're interested in helping with research, you can speak to a doctor or register your interest on Join Dementia Research.
Doctors sometimes use different names to describe frontotemporal dementia. These include: