A cystoscopy is a procedure to look inside the bladder using a thin camera called a cystoscope.
A cystoscope is inserted into the urethra (the tube that carries pee out of the body) and passed into the bladder to allow a doctor or nurse to see inside.
Small surgical instruments can also be passed down the cystoscope to treat some bladder problems at the same time.
There are 2 types of cystoscopy:
Flexible cystoscopies tend to be done if the reason for the procedure is just to look inside your bladder. A rigid cystoscopy may be done if you need treatment for a problem in your bladder.
Men and women can have either type of cystoscopy. Ask your doctor or nurse which type you're going to have if you're not sure.
Read more about what happens during a cystoscopy.
A cystoscopy can be used to look for and treat problems in the bladder or urethra.
For example, it can be used to:
A cystoscopy can be a bit uncomfortable, but it's not usually painful.
For a flexible cystoscopy, local anaesthetic gel is used to numb the urethra. This will reduce any discomfort when the cystoscope is inserted.
A rigid cystoscopy is carried out under general anaesthetic (where you're asleep) or a spinal anaesthetic (which numbs the lower half of your body), so you won't have any pain while it's carried out.
It's normal to have some discomfort when peeing after a cystoscopy, but this should pass in a few days.
You should be able to get back to normal quite quickly after a cystoscopy.
You can usually leave hospital the same day and can return to your normal activities – including work, exercise, and having sex – as soon as you feel able to.
This may be later the same day if you had a flexible cystoscopy, or a couple of days after a rigid cystoscopy.
It's normal to have discomfort when peeing and a bit of blood in your pee for a day or two.
See your GP if it's severe or doesn't improve in a few days, or you develop a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above.
Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department if you feel really unwell.
Read more about recovering from a cystoscopy.
A cystoscopy is usually a very safe procedure and serious complications are rare.
The main risks are:
There's also a risk your bladder could be damaged by the cystoscope, but this is rare.
Speak to your doctor or nurse about the possible risks of the procedure before having it.
Read more about the risks of a cystoscopy.