Your pregnancy and baby guidePlanning your pregnancy
You can improve your chances of getting pregnant and having a healthy pregnancy by following the steps on this page.
Take a folic acid supplement
It's recommended that all women who could get pregnant should take a daily supplement of folic acid.
So you should take a 400 microgram supplement of folic acid every day before you get pregnant, and up until you're 12 weeks pregnant.
A microgram is 1,000 times smaller than a milligram (mg). The word microgram is sometimes written with the Greek symbol μ followed by the letter g (μg).
Folic acid reduces the risk of your baby having a neural tube defect, such as spina bifida.
A neural tube defect is when the foetus' spinal cord (part of the body's nervous system) does not form normally.
Some women are advised to take a higher dose supplement of 5 milligram (5mg) every day.
You may need to take a 5mg supplement of folic acid if:
- you or the baby's biological father have a neural tube defect
- you previously had a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect
- you or the baby's biological father have a family history of neural tube defects
- you have diabetes
- you take anti-epilepsy medicine
Talk to a GP if you think you need a 5mg dose of folic acid, as they can prescribe a higher dose.
You can get folic acid tablets at pharmacies, or talk to a GP about getting a prescription.
Do not worry if you get pregnant unexpectedly and were not taking folic acid supplements. Start taking them as soon as you find out, until you're past the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.
Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to a variety of health problems, including:
- premature birth
- low birth weight
- sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), also known as cot death
- breathing problems or wheezing in the first 6 months of life
You can find useful information on the dangers of smoking during pregnancy and advice on how to stop on the Smokefree website.
Quitting can be hard, no matter how much you want to, but support is available.
The NHS Smokefree helpline (0300 123 1044) is open 9am to 8pm Monday to Friday, and 11am to 4pm at weekends.
It offers free help, support and advice on stopping smoking, including when you're pregnant, and can give you details of local support services.
Smoke from other people's cigarettes can damage your baby, so ask your partner, friends and family not to smoke near you.
Cut out alcohol
Do not drink alcohol if you're pregnant or trying to get pregnant. Alcohol can be passed to your unborn baby.
The Chief Medical Officers recommend that the safest approach is not to drink alcohol at all.
Drinking in pregnancy can lead to long-term harm to your baby, and the more you drink the greater the risk.
Keep to a healthy weight
If you're overweight, you may have problems getting pregnant and fertility treatment is less likely to work.
Being overweight (having a BMI over 25) or obese (having a BMI over 30) also raises the risk of some pregnancy problems, such as high blood pressure, blood clots, miscarriage and gestational diabetes.
Before you get pregnant, you can use the BMI healthy weight calculator to work out your BMI. But this may not be accurate once you're pregnant, so consult your midwife or doctor.
Having a healthy diet and getting moderate exercise are advised in pregnancy, and it's important not to gain too much weight.
You can keep to a healthy weight by eating a balanced diet and getting exercise.
Know which medicines you can take
Not all medicines are safe to take when you're pregnant, whether they're on prescription or medicines you can buy in a pharmacy or shop.
If you take prescribed medicine and you're planning to get pregnant, talk to your doctor.
Do not stop taking your medicine without talking to your doctor.
Get flu and whooping cough vaccinations
Some infections, such as rubella (german measles), can harm your baby if you catch them in pregnancy.
Most people in the UK are immune to rubella thanks to the uptake of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination.
If you have not had 2 doses of the MMR vaccine or you're not sure if you have, ask your GP practice to check your vaccination history.
If you have not had both doses or there's no record available, you can have the vaccinations at your GP practice.
You should avoid getting pregnant for 1 month after having the MMR vaccination, which means you'll need a reliable method of contraception.
Find out about other infections during pregnancy that can harm your baby and what you can do to reduce your risk of getting them, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus (slapped cheek syndrome) and toxoplasmosis.
Talk to your doctor if you have a long-term condition
If you have a long-term condition, such as epilepsy or diabetes, it could affect the decisions you make about your pregnancy – for example, where you might want to give birth.
While there's usually no reason why you should not have a smooth pregnancy and a healthy baby, some health conditions do need careful management to minimise risks to both you and your baby.
Before you get pregnant, have a discussion with your specialist or GP about getting pregnant.
If you're taking medication for a condition, do not stop taking it without consulting your doctor.
You can find out more about:
- asthma and pregnancy
- diabetes and pregnancy
- epilepsy and pregnancy
- heart disease or congenital heart defect
- pre-existing high blood pressure and pregnancy
- mental health problems and pregnancy
- being overweight and pregnancy
Testing for sickle cell and thalassaemia
Sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassaemia are inherited blood disorders that mainly affect people whose ancestors come from Africa, the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, India, Pakistan, south and southeast Asia, and the Middle East.
Pregnant women in England are offered screening tests for these disorders, but you do not have to wait until you're pregnant before you have a test.
If you or your partner are concerned you may be a carrier for one of these disorders, perhaps because someone in your family has a blood disorder or is a carrier, it's a good idea to get tested before starting a family.
You can ask for a free blood test from either your GP or a local sickle cell and thalassaemia centre.
More about having a healthy pregnancy
Vitamins and supplements that you should take or avoid, such as taking folic acid and avoiding vitamin A.
You can also get information and advice from:
- your doctor
- a community family planning (contraceptive) clinic
- a pharmacist
- Brook (under-25s only)
- your local young people's services – call 0300 123 7123
Page last reviewed: 04/10/2019
Next review due: 04/10/2022