Diabetic retinopathy usually only requires specific treatment when it reaches an advanced stage and there's a risk to your vision.
It's typically offered if diabetic eye screening detects stage three (proliferative) retinopathy, or if you have symptoms caused by diabetic maculopathy.
At all stages, managing your diabetes is crucial.
Read about the stages of diabetic retinopathy for more information about what these terms mean.
The most important part of your treatment is to keep your diabetes under control.
In the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, controlling your diabetes can help prevent vision problems developing.
In the more advanced stages, when your vision is affected or at risk, keeping your diabetes under control can help stop the condition getting worse.
For diabetic retinopathy that is threatening or affecting your sight, the main treatments are:
Laser treatment is used to treat new blood vessels at the back of the eyes in the advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy. This is done because the new blood vessels tend to be very weak and often cause bleeding into the eye.
Treatment can help stabilise the changes in your eyes caused by your diabetes and stop your vision getting any worse, although it won't usually improve your sight.
After treatment, you may have some side effects for a few hours. These can include:
You should be told about the risks of treatment in advance. Potential complications include:
Get medical advice if you notice that your sight gets worse after treatment.
In some cases of diabetic maculopathy, injections of a medicine called anti-VEGF may be given directly into your eyes to prevent new blood vessels forming at the back of the eyes.
The main medicines used are called ranibizumab (Lucentis) and aflibercept (Eylea). These can help stop the problems in your eyes getting worse, and may also lead to an improvement in your vision.
The injections are usually given once a month to begin with. Once your vision starts to stabilise, they'll be stopped or given less frequently.
Injections of steroid medication may sometimes be given instead of anti-VEGF injections, or if the anti-VEGF injections don't help.
Possible risks and side effects of anti-VEGF injections include:
There's also a risk that the injections could cause blood clots to form, which could lead to a heart attack or stroke. This risk is small, but it should be discussed with you before you give your consent to treatment.
The main risk with steroid injections is increased pressure inside the eye.
Surgery may be carried out to remove some of the vitreous humour from the eye. This is the transparent, jelly-like substance that fills the space behind the lens of the eye.
The operation, known as vitreoretinal surgery, may be needed if:
During the procedure, the surgeon will make a small incision in your eye before removing some of the vitreous humour, removing any scar tissue and using a laser to prevent a further deterioration in your vision.
Vitreoretinal surgery is usually carried out under local anaesthetic and sedation. This means you will not experience any pain or have any awareness of the surgery being performed.
You should be able to go home on the same day or the day after your surgery.
For the first few days, you may need to wear a patch over your eye. This is because activities such as reading and watching television can quickly tire your eye to begin with.
You will probably have blurred vision after the operation. This should improve gradually, although it may take several months for your vision to fully return to normal.
Your surgeon will advise you about any activities you should avoid during your recovery.
Possible risks of vitreoretinal surgery include:
There's also a small chance that you will need further retinal surgery afterwards. Your surgeon will explain the risks to you.