The pattern of symptoms can vary depending on the type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).
In sporadic CJD, the symptoms mainly affect the workings of the nervous system (neurological symptoms) and these symptoms rapidly worsen in the space of a few months.
In variant CJD, symptoms that affect a person's behaviour and emotions (psychological symptoms) will usually develop first.
These are then followed by neurological symptoms around 4 months later, which get worse over the following few months.
Familial CJD has the same sort of pattern as sporadic CJD, but it often takes longer for the symptoms to progress – usually around 2 years, rather than a few months.
The pattern of iatrogenic CJD is unpredictable, as it depends on how a person became exposed to the infectious protein (prion) that caused CJD.
Initial neurological symptoms of sporadic CJD can include:
Initial psychological symptoms of variant CJD can include:
Advanced neurological symptoms of all forms of CJD can include:
Advanced psychological symptoms of all forms of CJD include:
As the condition progresses to its final stages, people with all forms of CJD will become totally bedridden.
They often become totally unaware of their surroundings and require around-the-clock care.
They also often lose the ability to speak and can't communicate with their carers.
Death will inevitably follow, usually either as a result of an infection, such as pneumonia (a lung infection), or respiratory failure, where the lungs stop working and the person is unable to breathe.
Nothing can be done to prevent death in these circumstances.
Advancements in palliative care (the treatment of incurable conditions) mean that people with CJD often have a peaceful death.
Read more about treating Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.