Screening is a way of finding out if people are at higher risk of a health problem, so that early treatment can be offered or information given to help them make informed decisions.
This page gives an overview of screening, with links to the different types of screening offered by the NHS in England.
Screening is a way of identifying apparently healthy people who may have an increased risk of a particular condition. The NHS offers a range of screening tests to different sections of the population.
The aim is to offer screening to the people who are most likely to benefit from it. For example, some screening tests are only offered to newborn babies, while others such as breast screening and abdominal aortic aneurysm screening are only offered to older people.
If you get a normal result (a screen negative result) after a screening test, this means you are at low risk of having the condition you were screened for. This does not mean you will never develop the condition in the future, just that you are low risk at the moment.
If you have a higher-risk result (a screen positive result), it means you may have the condition that you've been tested for. At this point, you will be offered further tests (called diagnostic tests) to confirm if you have the condition. You can then be offered treatment, advice and support.
Finding out about a problem early can mean that treatment is more effective. However, screening tests are not perfect and they can lead to difficult decisions about having further tests or treatment.
Read on to find out about the benefits, risks and limitations of screening.
An independent expert group called the UK National Screening Committee (UK NSC) advises the NHS, in all 4 UK countries, on which screening programmes to offer.
The NHS screening programmes currently offered in England are listed below. For more detailed information on each type of screening, follow the links.
You can also view screening timelines.
Pregnant women are offered the following types of screening:
Newborn babies are offered:
From the age of 12, all people with diabetes are offered an annual diabetic eye test to check for early signs of diabetic retinopathy.
Cervical screening is offered to women aged 25 to 64 to check the health of cells in the cervix. It is offered every 3 years for those aged 26 to 49, and every 5 years from the ages of 50 to 64.
Breast screening is offered to women aged 50 to 70 to detect early signs of breast cancer. Women over 70 can self-refer.
There are 2 types of screening for bowel cancer.
A home testing kit is offered to men and women aged 60 to 74.
Bowel scope screening uses a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end to look at the large bowel. It is offered to men and women at the age of 55 in some parts of England.
AAA screening is offered to men in their 65th year to detect abdominal aortic aneurysms (a dangerous swelling in the aorta). Men over 65 can self-refer.
Before having any screening test, it's worth finding out about the test itself and what would happen next if you found out you have a higher risk of a particular condition.
Deciding whether or not to have a screening test is a personal choice and one which only you can make. When you are invited for screening, you will receive an information leaflet about the screening test.
You can discuss any aspect of the screening test with your health professional and decide whether or not it's right for you.
Different types of screening have different benefits and risks. Some of these are listed below.
An expert group called the UK NSC advises the NHS on which screening programmes to offer.
When considering who to screen and which conditions to screen for, the benefits of offering a screening programme are weighed up against the harms. The UK NSC only recommends screening when it believes the benefits to the group offered screening outweigh the harms.
The UK NSC regularly reviews its recommendations on screening for different conditions as new research becomes available. This is usually done every 3 years.
All screening tests provided by the NHS are free. Private companies offer a range of screening tests that you have to pay for. Some of the tests on offer are not recommended by the UK NSC because it is not clear that the benefits outweigh the harms.
The UK NSC has produced a downloadable leaflet on private screening.
By law, everyone working in, or on behalf of, the NHS must respect your privacy and keep all information about you safe. The NHS Constitution sets out how the NHS should handle your records to protect your privacy. There are also laws in place to ensure that confidentiality is maintained.
Screening records are only shared with staff who need to see them, such as technicians carrying out screening, your GP and any clinicians involved in follow-up tests and treatment. They are also shared with Public Health England, which uses them to check that local screening services are safe and effective. Screening records are sometimes also shared by Public Health England with researchers looking at how to improve the screening programmes.
Read more about screening data and confidentiality.
Speak to your GP if you have any concerns about your health or need to ask about a family history of cancer.
Contact the PHE screening helpdesk.